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使用嵌装温度梯度表测量热通量的标准试验方法  
 【英文标准名称】  Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages
 【原文标准名称】  使用嵌装温度梯度表测量热通量的标准试验方法
 【标准号】  ASTM E2683-2009
 【标准状态】  Active
 【国别】  
 【发布日期】  2009
 【实施或试行日期】  
 【发布单位】  美国材料与试验协会(US-ASTM)
 【起草单位】  E21.08
 【标准类型】  (Test Method)
 【标准水平】  ()
 【中文主题词】  
 【英文主题词】  heat-flux gage; temperature gradient; thermal transport
 【摘要】  

The purpose of this test method is to measure the net heat flux to or from a surface location. For measurement of the radiant energy component the emissivity or absorptivity of the surface coating of the gage is required. When measuring the convective energy component the potential physical and thermal disruptions of the surface must be minimized and characterized. Requisite is to consider how the presence of the gage alters the surface heat flux. The desired quantity is usually the heat flux at the surface location without the presence of the gage.

Temperature limitations are determined by the gage material properties, the method of mounting the sensing element, and how the lead wires are attached. The range of heat flux that can be measured and the time response are limited by the gage design and construction details. Measurements of a fraction of 1 kW/m2 to above 10 MW/m2 are easily obtained with current gages. With thin film sensors a time response of less than 10 x03BC;s is possible, while thicker sensors may have response times on the order of 1 s. It is important to choose the gage style and characteristics to match the range and time response of the required application.

When differential thermocouple sensors are operated as specified for one-dimensional heat flux and within the corresponding time response limitations, the voltage output is directly proportional to the heat flux. The sensitivity, however, may be a function of the gage temperature.

The measured heat flux is based on one-dimensional analysis with a uniform heat flux over the surface of the gage. Measurements of convective heat flux are particularly sensitive to disturbances of the temperature of the surface. Because the heat-transfer coefficient is also affected by any non-uniformities in the surface temperature, the effect of a small temperature change with location is further amplified as explained by Moffat et al. (2) and Diller (3). Moreover, the smaller the gage surface area, the larger is the effect on the heat transfer coefficient of any surface temperature non-uniformity. Therefore, surface temperature disruptions caused by the gage should be kept much smaller than the surface to environment temperature difference driving the heat flux. This necessitates a good thermal path between the sensor and the surface into which it is mounted. If the gage is not water cooled, a good thermal pathway to the systemx2019;s heat sink is important. The gage should have an effective thermal conductivity as great or greater than the surrounding material. It should also have good physical contact insured by a tight fit in the hole and a method to tighten the gage into the surface. An example method used to tighten the gage to the surface material is illustrated in Fig. 2. The gage housing has a flange and a separate tightening nut tapped into the surface material.

If the gage is water cooled, the thermal pathway to the plate is less important. The heat transfer to the gage enters the water as the heat sink instead of the surrounding plate. Consequently, the thermal resistance between the gage and plate may even be increased to discourage heat transfer from the plate to the cooling water. Unfortunately, this may also increase the thermal mismatch between the gage and surrounding surface.

Fig. 2 shows a heat flux gage mounted into a plate with the surface temperature of the gage of Ts and the surface temperature of the surrounding plate of Tp. As previously discussed, a difference in temperature between the gage and plate may also increase the local heat transfer coefficient over the gage. This amplifies the measurement error. Consequently, a well designed heat flux gage will keep the temperature difference ........

 【中国标准分类号】  
 【国际标准分类号】  17_200_10
 【页数】  7P.;A4
 【正文语种】  
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